## School -> State

**Class 11 Course Content**

##### Course Details

Tamilnadu class 11 Maths subject is an important subject which needs a clear understanding of the concepts. Students must read the chapters thoroughly and solve the exercise wise questions to get a clear idea about the subject.The chapters given are extremely crucial as the concepts are required in several competitive exams and higher level topics later.

LITAA Academy has designed the courses based on the need of the hour.

This is a fully online, one-year course for Class 11 students. The course brings live classes by the expert faculties. The course provides you with a comprehensive syllabus and study-material, prepared by the subject experts. The study material will be provided to you digitally. You can also access the live doubt classes along with one-to-one doubt solutions. There will also be tests as prescribed by state board.

##### Syllabus

Chapters | Topics |
---|---|

Basic Algebra | Real Numbers - Revision: Rational, Irrational Numbers, Expressing inequalities like or using intervals; Absolute value of x; Exponents - Revision: Properties of exponents, Converting radicals/surds to exponents. Rationalizing fractions with surds; Polynomials - Addition, multiplication, and factorization of polynomials, Identities for, Method of undetermined coefficients to find a polynomial of given degree; Rational Expressions - Simplification of rational expressions by factorization, Partial fractions: linear and quadratic factors; Graphs - Graphical representation of data, Interpreting a graph and answering questions based on it; Equations and simple inequalities roots of Linear Equations, quadratic equations, roots of a factored polynomial equation; solving equations with radicals and absolute value; solving simple linear inequalities, graphical representation of equations and inequalities |

Sets, Relations, and Functions | Sets - recalling: Definitions and Examples, types of sets, algebra of sets, De Morgan Laws, Venn diagrams, practical problems; Intervals - open and closed intervals, other types of intervals, a neighborhood of a Point; the Cartesian product of sets - definition and examples; Relations - special relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive, antisymmetric and equivalence relations; Functions and Graphs of Algebraic functions - functions as a formula, real-valued functions, identity function, polynomial functions, rational functions, absolute value functions, Signum functions, greatest integer functions; Algebra of functions - addition, subtraction, multiplication, and quotient of functions, the composition of functions, one to one and onto functions, Inverse of a function |

Trigonometry | Basic concepts - angles, signs of an angle, degree and radian measures, trigonometric ratios for all angles, basic trigonometric identities; Formulae for the sum of angles and sum and products of trigonometric ratios - formulae for sin(A ± B), cos (A ± B), tan(A±B), sin2A, cos2A, tan2A, sin3A, cos3A, tan3A, sum and product formulae: sinC ± sinD, cosC± cosD sinAcosB, cos A cos B, sinAsinB; Trigonometric equations - general solutions of the trigonometric equations: sin θ = sin α, cosθ = cosα, tanθ = tan α, a cosθ + b sin θ = c; Properties of Triangles - sine and cosine rule: Projection and area formulae, application to triangles; Inverse trigonometric functions - definitions, Identities, and simple problems |

Combinatorics | Factorials - definition and examples; Permutations - a fundamental principle of counting, permutation of distinct objects, not all distinct objects, simple problems; Combinations - definition, the relation between Permutation and combinations, properties, simple problems; Mathematical Induction - principles, simple problems |

Finite and Infinite Series | Binomial theorem - Binomial theorem for positive integral index (proof using combinations and also by induction), applications of binomial theorem; Sequence and Series - AP, GP, HP: Terms and Sum of AP and GP, Arithmetic and Geometric means. Problems on the sum of finite series, Arithmetic-geometric progression. Infinite Series - Infinite Geometric Series; Infinite Arithmetic - Geometric Series; Infinite series using the principle of telescopic sums; Exponential and logarithmic series (without proof); Binomial theorem for all rational index as an infinite series (without proof) |

Two Dimensional Analytic geometry – I | Locus of a point - definition and simple examples; Straight lines - various forms of the equation: Slope – point, Slope – intercept, two points, intercepts, normal and parametric forms; general form; related problems; Pair of Straight lines - equation of a pair of straight lines, problems related with the distance of a point from a line, the distance between two parallel lines, equation of a line bisecting the angle between two lines |

Matrices and Determinants - I | Matrices - definition, concept, and types of matrices, operations of transpose, scalar multiplication, multiplying a row or column by a number, adding two rows/columns, reducing a matrix into triangular and echelon form, addition and multiplication of matrices, solving simultaneous linear equations by Gaussian Elimination Method; Determinants - definition of a determinant and its evaluations, properties of determinants, using properties of determinants to evaluate the value, product of determinants, determinant of a square matrix, singular and non-singular matrices |

Vectors –I | Scalars and Vector - Concept of scalars and vectors, Magnitude and direction of a general vector, free vectors, localized vectors, zero vector, unit vector, negative of a vector, algebra of vectors, resolution of a vector, vector Arithmetic in space (3D) direction ratios, and direction cosines; Vector Algebra - equality of vectors, collinear vectors, co-planar vectors, co-initial vectors, like vectors, unlike vectors, triangle law, parallelogram law, Polygon law; Applications of Vector Algebra - position vector of a point, the distinction between position vectors and free vectors, section formulae, problems; Product of two vectors - the angle between two vectors, definition of the dot product, geometrical meaning, properties, the definition of the cross product, geometrical meaning, properties, applications to geometry, trigonometry and physics |

Limits, Continuity, and Differentiability | Left-hand limits and Right-hand limits, the definition of Limit, properties of limit, Limit theorems, Evaluation of limits; Continuity - graphical meaning of continuity of a function, visual identification of continuity and discontinuity, formal definition of continuity, examples, points of discontinuity, kinds of discontinuity, algebra of continuous functions, composite function theorem, standard problems; Slope as Limits - finding the slope of straight lines and curves, the definition of a derivative as the limit, evaluation of simple derivatives; Differentiability - graphical understanding of differentiability and non-differentiability, formal definition of differentiability and examples, the relation between continuity and differentiability, evaluation of derivatives using first principle, properties of derivatives, derivatives as a rate of change, the slope of a straight line |

Differential Calculus | Methods of differentiation - differentiation formulae: addition, product, quotient rules, derivative of composite functions, power functions, trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions, parametric differentiation, the meaning of second, third, and higher-order derivatives (with problems restricted to second-order), differentiation of functions with respect to another function |

Integral Calculus | Indefinite integral as Anti-derivative - integration as antiderivative, properties of integrals and integrals of standard functions and also functions Methods of Integration - properties of integration, indefinite integrals: decomposition, substitution, partial fractions and integration by parts methods |

##### Course Details

Samacheer Kalvi Class 11th acts as a foundation to students on various concepts, topics for subjects that the students will be appearing for in class 12th final exams. Therefore, it is important to focus on building the basics by thoroughly going through the Physics textbooks prescribed by the Tamil Nadu education board.

LITAA Academy has designed the courses based on the need of the hour.

This is a fully online, one-year course for Class 11 students. The course brings live classes by the expert faculties. The course provides you with a comprehensive syllabus and study-material, prepared by the subject experts. The study material will be provided to you digitally. You can also access the live doubt classes along with one-to-one doubt solutions. There will also be tests as prescribed by state board.

##### Syllabus

Chapters | Topics |
---|---|

Nature of the Physical World and Measurement | Science – Introduction; Physics- Introduction; Physics in relation with other branches of science; Nature of Physical laws; Measurement; Physical Quantities and units; SI Unit system; Measurement of small distances; Measurement of larger distances; Significant figures; Theory of errors; Dimensional analysis |

Kinematics | Motion in a straight line; Basic concepts of calculus and graph; Speed, velocity; Average speed, Instantaneous velocity, Average velocity; Position time graph; Velocity-time graph; Relative velocity in 1-Dimension; Accelerated motion; Elementary concepts of vector algebra; Relative velocity in 2-D; Projectile motion; Circular motion |

Laws of Motion | Force; Newton’s laws of motion; Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications; Equilibrium of concurrent forces with Lami’s theorem; free body diagram; Friction |

Work, Energy, and Power | Work; Work done by a constant force; Work is done by a variable force; Energy; Potential Energy and Kinetic energy; Law of conservation of energy; Work-Energy theorem; Power, Collision |

Motion of system of particles and rigid body | Centre of mass; Centre of mass of two particles system; Moment of Inertia; Radius of gyration; Theorems of Moment of Inertia; Moment of inertia of ring, disc uniform rod and spherical objects; Dynamics of circular motion; Rotational mechanics; Moment of force; Torque; Angular momentum; Law of conservation of angular momentum |

Gravitation | Gravitation; Kepler’s law; Universal law of gravitation; Acceleration due to gravity; Gravitational field; Gravitational potential; Escape speed; Earth satellites; Orbital velocity; Geo stationery and polar satellite; Elementary ideas of Astrophysics |

Properties of Matter | Intermolecular or inter-atomic forces; Elasticity; Stress and strain; Hooke's law, Experimental verification; Stress-strain graph; Moduli of elasticity; Poisson’s ratio; Fluids; Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and applications; Buoyant force; Archimedes principle; Viscosity; Streamline flow; Turbulent flow; Terminal velocity; Stokes law and its applications; Surface Tension; Surface energy, the relation between S.E and S.T; Angle of contact; Capillarity; Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications |

Heat and Thermodynamics | Thermal properties of matter -Heat; Temperature; Change of state; Specific heat capacity; latent heat capacity; calorimetry; Thermal Expansion of solids, liquids and gases, Heat transfer; Laws of heat transfer; Newton’s law of cooling; Thermodynamics; Zeroth law of thermodynamics; Internal energy; First law of thermodynamics; Quasi-static process; Indicator diagrams; Thermodynamic process; Meyer’s relation; Work done in Thermodynamic processes; Heat engine; Second law of thermodynamics |

Behavior of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory of Gases. | Kinetic theory of gases; Pressure exerted by a gas; Relation between pressure and mean kinetic energy; Average kinetic energy per molecule of a gas; Gas laws; Degrees of freedom; Law of equipartition of energy; Specific heat of a gas; Mean free path; Brownian motion |

Oscillations | Periodic and oscillatory motion; Simple Harmonic Motion; Displacement, velocity acceleration, time period and frequency of SHM; Angular harmonic motion; Linear simple harmonic oscillator; Oscillations of a simple pendulum in SHM and laws of the simple pendulum; Energy of simple harmonic oscillator type of oscillations |

Waves | Introduction of wave formation; Characteristics of wave motion; Mechanical wave motion and its types; Terms and definitions used in wave motion; Velocity of waves in different media; Propagation of sound waves; Progressive waves; Reflection of sound waves; Superposition principle; Interference of waves; Formation of beats; Stationary waves; Intensity and loudness; Vibrations of air column; Doppler Effect |

##### Course Details

Samacheer Kalvi Class 11th acts as a foundation to students on various concepts, topics for subjects that the students will be appearing for in class 12th final exams.

Tamil Nadu Board Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus is an all-comprehensive document inclusive of all what is covered in the area of Chemistry during the academic year.

Students aiming to score well in the Class 11 Chemistry exams are advised to refer to the TN Board Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus as it will help them to prepare more efficiently not just for the exams but also to study well in Class. Knowing the Tamil Nadu 11th Class Syllabus usually helps the students to get an idea about the topics and concepts taught in class, the marks’ weightage of a topic and so on.

LITAA Academy has designed the courses based on the need of the hour.

This is a fully online, one-year course for Class 11 students. The course brings live classes by the expert faculties. The course provides you with a comprehensive syllabus and study-material, prepared by the subject experts. The study material will be provided to you digitally. You can also access the live doubt classes along with one-to-one doubt solutions. There will also be tests as prescribed by state board.

##### Syllabus

Chapters | Topics |
---|---|

Basic concepts of chemistry and chemical calculations | Importance of Chemistry; Classification of matters; Elements and compounds; Atomic and molecular masses; equivalent mass, empirical and molecular formula; mole concept; stoichiometric calculations; Limiting reagents, redox reactions, competitive electron transfer reactions, oxidation number; types of redox reactions and balancing redox reactions |

Quantum mechanical model of the atom | A brief introduction to various atom models; Dual behavior of matter; Debroglie relation, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle; Quantum mechanical model of atom; Schrӧdinger equation, Quantum numbers; Atomic orbitals – shapes, energy, Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle, Hund’s rule; Electronic configuration of atoms, stability of completely filled and half-filled orbitals |

Elements and periodic classification | Need for classification of elements; Modern periodic law and the periodic table; Nomenclature of elements with atomic numbers greater than 100; Classification of elements based on electronic configurations; Periodic trends in properties - atomic radius, ionic radius, ionization enthalpy, electron affinity, electronegativity; Periodic trends in chemical properties, periodicity of valence/oxidation states, Anomalous properties of second-period elements, Diagonal relationship |

Hydrogen and water | Position of hydrogen in the periodic table, isotopes of hydrogen, ortho and para hydrogen; Preparation of hydrogen: laboratory and commercial production; Physical and chemical properties of hydrogen, uses of hydrogen; Hydrides: classification; Physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hardness of water and its removal; Hydrogen peroxide: Preparation, structure, physical and chemical properties, uses. |

Alkaline and alkaline earth metals | Alkali metals: General characteristics, chemical properties and uses; general characteristics; physical, chemical properties and uses; compounds of alkali metals: oxides, hydroxides, halides, salts of oxoacids – general characteristics; Biological importance of sodium and potassium. Alkaline earth metals: general characteristics, physical, chemical properties and uses; compounds of alkaline earth metals: oxides, hydroxides, halides, salts of oxoacids – general characteristics; important compounds of calcium: quick lime, slake lime, gypsum, and plaster of paris; Biological importance of magnesium and calcium. |

Chemical Bonding | Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bonding; octet rule, ionic bond, covalent bond, coordinate bond; bonding in metals; Bond parameters; resonance; polarity of bonds; Hybridisation – Orbital overlap, σ and π bonds, VSEPR theory, shapes of covalent molecules; Valence bond theory (VBT), Molecular Orbital Theory: Bonding in homonuclear diatomic molecules (H2, Li2, B2, C2, N2and O2) and hetero-nuclear diatomic molecules (CO and NO); Hydrogen bond – criteria, types, and significance. |

Thermodynamics | Introduction to thermodynamic terms, System, and surroundings, types and properties of the system: processes: reversible, irreversible, adiabatic, isothermal, isobaric, isochoric, and cyclic processes; Internal energy and work; First law of thermodynamics; Enthalpy: the relationship between ΔH and ΔU; Thermochemical equations; Enthalpy changes for different types of reactions and phase transformations; Measurement of ΔH and ΔU using calorimetry; Hess law of constant heat summation; Lattice enthalpy: Born-Haber cycle; Need for the second law of thermodynamics; various statements of second law; Meaning and significance of entropy; Gibbs free energy and its significance; criteria for spontaneity of a process; Relationship between ΔG and equilibrium constant; Third law of thermodynamics (statement only) |

Gaseous state | Introduction; Gas laws: Boyle’s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro law; Ideal gas equation and deviation from ideal behavior; Compressibility factor; Vanderwaal’s equation; critical phenomena; Relation between Vander-Waals constants and critical constants; diffusion - Grahams diffusion law; Liquefaction of gases – Joule Thomson effect; isotherms of carbon dioxide. |

Solutions | Types of solutions; expressing Concentration of solutions – mass percentage, volume percentage, parts per million (ppm), mole fraction, molarity, molality, and normality; Henry’s law, Vapour pressure of liquid solutions; Raoult’s law for volatile solutes and non-volatile solutes; ideal and non-ideal solutes; factors responsible for deviation from Raoult’s law. Colligative properties; Relative lowering of vapor pressure; depression of freezing point; Elevation of boiling point; Osmosis and osmotic pressure; Reverse osmosis and water purification; Abnormal molecular mass: Dissociation and association, Vant Hoff factor. |

Chemical equilibrium | Introduction to physical and chemical equilibria; Law of mass action; Equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc); Relation between Kp and Kc; Homogeneous and Heterogeneous equilibrium; Applications of equilibrium constants in predicting the extend and the direction of a reaction; Lechatlier’s principle – effect of concentration, pressure, temperature, catalyst, and inert gas addition; Vant-Hoff equation |

Organic Chemistry – Basic principles and technique | Introduction, Classification, and nomenclature of organic compounds; IUPAC rules for naming organic compounds; structural representation; Isomerism – structural isomerism, stereoisomerism: Geometrical and optical isomerism, Detection and estimation of elements (C, H, N, S, X, and P) in organic compounds; Purification of organic compounds – sublimation, crystallization, distillation (fraction, steam and azeotropic), differential extraction, chromatography (absorption, column, thin layer, and partition chromatography) |

Organic reactions and their mechanism | Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanism; Fission of covalent bond; Nucleophiles, electrophiles, and free radicals; Electron displacements effects in covalent bonds – inductive effect, electrometric effect, resonance effect, hyperconjugation, and mesomeric effect; Types of organic reactions: substitution reactions, addition reactions, elimination reactions, oxidation reactions, reduction reactions, molecular rearrangements; Functional group interconversions, |

Hydrocarbons | Introduction, classification of hydrocarbons; Preparation and chemical properties of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes; Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov addition reactions and their mechanism; conformers of alkanes; Aromatic hydrocarbons: Aromaticity and Huckel Rule; Structure of benzene; Preparation of benzene; Aromatic electrophilic substitution reactions and mechanism, influence of the functional group in mono-substituted benzene; toxicity(carcinogenicity |

Halo-alkanes and haloarenes | Halo-alkanes; nature of C–X bond, classification and nomenclature; preparation from alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols; physical properties; chemical properties – nucleophilic substitution reactions, stereochemical aspects (SN1, SN2); Elimination reactions, E1, and E2 mechanisms; organometallic compounds: Introduction, preparation and uses of Grignard reagent; Haloarenes: Preparation of chlorobenzene; Chemical properties of chlorobenzene: nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions, reaction with metals (Wurtz-Fitting and Fitting reactions), Formation of DDT; polyhalogen compounds and uses. |

Environmental chemistry | Environmental pollution; Types – air, water, and soil pollution; Particulate pollutants, Greenhouse effect, and global warming; Acid rain and its effect; Ozone hole; Strategies to control environmental pollutions; Green chemistry |

##### Course Details

Samacheer Kalvi Class 11th acts as a foundation to students on various concepts, topics for subjects that the students will be appearing for in class 12th final exams.

Tamil Nadu Board Class 11 Biology Syllabus is an all-comprehensive document inclusive of all what is covered in the area of Chemistry during the academic year.
Students aiming to score well in the Class 11 Biology exams are advised to refer to the TN Board Class 11 Biology Syllabus as it will help them to prepare more efficiently not just for the exams but also to study well in Class. Knowing the Tamil Nadu 11th Class Biology Syllabus usually helps the students to get an idea about the topics and concepts taught in class, the marks’ weightage of a topic and so on.

LITAA Academy has designed the courses based on the need of the hour.

This is a fully online, one-year course for Class 11 students. The course brings live classes by the expert faculties. The course provides you with a comprehensive syllabus and study-material, prepared by the subject experts. The study material will be provided to you digitally. You can also access the live doubt classes along with one-to-one doubt solutions. There will also be tests as prescribed by state board.

##### Syllabus

Chapters | Topics |
---|---|

Plant Diversity | Living world – Introduction; Attributes of living organisms- metabolism-Homeostasis-growth reproduction- Shape and size- Cellular structure consciousness Classification of Plants - Three domains; Five kingdoms; Seven kingdoms ( Chromista); Diversity in the Plant World; Classification of plants; ( cryptogams, phanerogams) Plant kingdom - Viruses- Discovery, classification, shape, size, structure( TMV, Bacteriophage)Reproduction, virion, viroids, virusoids Prions. Plant viral diseases (only names); BacteriaDiscovery, Archaebacterium, Eubacterium Gram + and Gram-negative bacteria – with reference to cell wall composition, Glycocalyx flagellum ultrastructure, Pilus and fimbriae Plasmid and its types, mesosome, Bacterial life processes,-Nutrition, Respiration, reproduction, , Mycoplasma, structure, Economic importance(Useful & harmful); Cyanobacteria; Fungi – Reproduction, classification, Phycomycetes, zygomycetes, ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Deuteromycetes, symbionts – Lichen, Mycorrhizae, Structure, Economic Importance; Algae – Thallus organisation, classification, Reproduction, Characteristics of Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae,Structure of Oedogonium and Chara, Economic importance; Bryophytes – Salient features, classification Reproduction, Alternation of generation, Structure of Marchantia and Funaria, Economic importance; Pteridophytes – Salient features, classification, Different types of Stele, structure of Selaginella and Adiantum Economic importance; Gymnosperms- Salient features, comparison with angiosperm classification,Structure of Cycas and Pinus. Economic importance; Angiosperms- salient features, Dicots and monocots – Difference-traditional concept – Modern –Only Monocots; the Life cycle of Plants – Haplontic, Diplontic, Haplo- Diplontic with examples. |

Morphology and Taxonomy of Angiosperms | Vegetative morphology - Introduction; Habit-Types; Life span; Habitat; Root system; Characteristics features, Regions of root; Types of roots, Functions, Modification of roots- Tap root (Storage, Nodulated, Pneumatophore, assimilatory, Root buttress); Adventitious ( Storage, Mechanical- Prop roots, stilt roots (Balancing roots)- types and functions ) Shoot system - Characteristic features, BudsTerminal, Axillary, and Adventitious budsmodifications; Stem modifications - aerial, sub-aerial, underground; Comparison of underground stem and root, branching of a stem; Leaf –Parts – Venation, Types -simple and compound; Phyllotaxy- Symmetry of leaves; Modification of leaf ( Tendrils, spines, Hooks, Scales, tentacles, leaf bladders, foliar roots, storage, pitcher, Phyllode) Reproductive Morphology - Inflorescence - Types Racemose, Cymose, Mixed and special types; FlowerMonoecious, Dioecious, Polgamous, , floral symmetry; Calyx, corolla, Perianth; Aestivation; Androecium – Structure and types (Adelphy, epipetalous, syngenesious, gynostegium, pollinia, Didynamous, Tetradynamous; Gynoecium –Parts – syncarpous and apocapous,Gynobasic style; Gynandrophore, Placentation, Construction of floral diagram and floral formula- Hibiscus, Brassica juncea, Crotolaria, Vinca, Phyllanthus, Musa; Fruit –Definition and types. Taxonomy and Systematic Botany - Difference between Taxonomy and Systematic Botany; Concept of species- morphological, Biological, Phylogenetic; Types of Specie; Taxonomic hierarchy; Organisms with their taxonomic categorie; ICBN Principles (now ICN) , Nomenclature, Codes of Nomenclature – Vernacular and Scientific names – Polynomial, Binomial and Trinomial nomenclature, Author citation; Type concept- Holotype, Isotype, Lectotype, Syntype, Paratype, Neotype, Epitype; Taxonomic Aids- Keys, Flora, revisions Monographs, catalogs, Botanical gardens, International and National, BSI, Herbariumpreparation and uses, National( MH, PCM, CAL, TBGRI) and International herbaria (Kew); Classification - need and types; Artificial- Linnaeus,Natural – Bentham and Hooker, PhylogeneticEngler& Prantl; Cronquist, APG system-APG III and IV- Cladistic methodology; Modern trends in taxonomy, Chemotaxonomy, Biosystematics, Karyotaxonomy, Serotaxonomy, Molecular methods (RFLP, AFLP and RAPD); Difference between classical and modern taxonomy; Diagnostic features and economic importance of following families, Fabaceae – Pisum sativum, Clitoria ternatea, Solanaceae - Solanum nigram, Datura metel, Liliaceae -Allium cepa |

Cell Biology and Bio-Molecules | Cell: The Unit of Life Discovery; Microscopy– Compound microscope, Electron microscope ( TEM, SEM); Darkfield, Phase contrast Microscope; Comparison of microscopes; Cell Theory, Cell doctrine, Exceptions to cell theory, Protoplasmic theory, Granular theory, colloidal Theory, Sol-Gel Theory. Properties, Cell size &shape; Prokaryotes-Mesokaryotes- Eukaryotes; Plant cell and Animal cell differences; Protoplasm- Cell Wall- Cell Membrane-E.R, Golgi Apparatus- MitochondriaPlastids- Ribosomes- lysosomes -PeroxisomesGlyoxysomes –Centrioles-Vacuole-Cell inclusion endocytosis- Phago cytosis –pinocytosis- exocytosis, microbodies- xenobiotics; Flagella- Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes Mechanism of Flagellar Movement, ultrastructure of flagellum; Nucleus, ChromosomeStructure and Types, Cytological techniques Cell Cycle - History of Cell division, scientist contribution; Cell cycle – stages, duration; Cell Division – Amitosis, Mitosis & Meiosis; Mitosis stages and significance; Meiosis stages and Significance; Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis; Mitogens, mitotic poisons, endomitosis- Anastral, Amphiastral Biomolecules - Primary metabolites; Water; Carbohydrates – Classification & Structure; Proteins & Amino Acids– Classification & Structure; Lipids – Classification & Structure; Nucleic Acids general Structure & composition – Forms Of DNA & Types Of RNA; Enzymes – Classification, Nomenclature, Structure and Concepts, Mechanism of Enzyme Action, Activation energy, factors affecting enzyme action; Secondary Metabolites |

Plant Anatomy(Structural Organisation of Plants) | Tissues - Introduction to anatomy & milestones; Brief outline of theories of meristem – (Apical Cell theory, Tunica Corpus theory, Quiescent Centreconcept); Tissues – introduction & types; Meristematic tissue – characteristics & types; Permanent tissue – Simple (Parenchyma, Collenchyma & Sclerenchyma) Complex (Xylem & phloem); Types – special types – aerenchyma, chlorenchyma. Tissue System - Dermal tissue – root, stem, and leaf; Ground tissue – cortex &pith; Vascular tissue – types of bundles(collateral, bi-collateral, conjoint, concentric, radial, amphivasal, amphicribral )– comparison of primary structure – monocot and dicot root, stem and leaf Secondary Growth - Secondary growth in dicots; Cork cambium, vascular cambium; Wood anatomy, Sapwood, and heartwood; Autumn wood and springwood; Anomalous secondary growth in dicots and monocots |

Plant Physiology (Functional Organisation of Plants) | Transport in Plants - Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-diffusion, facilitated diffusion – active transport – uniport, antiport and symport , role of membrane permeability in transport, comparison of different transport processes – aquaporins; Plant water relations-Water potential, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, Plasmolysis, Deplasmolysis, DPD, Imbibition, movement of substances; Absorption of water, -apoplast, symplast; Conduction of water - root pressure, Exudation, Guttation, Hydathodes; Transpiration, types of transpiration, factors affection transpiration; Plant antitranspirants; Transpiration pull and guttation; Ascent of sap; Mechanism of stomatal movement – role of potassium , Calcium & ABA; Uptake and translocation of minerals ; Transport of food- phloem transport-phloem loading and unloading; Mechanism of translocation Mineral Nutrition - Essential minerals, Criteria for essentiality; Classification on the basis of function; Mechanism of absorption of elements; Macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms& toxicity of mineral elements, Hydroponics, Aeroponics, Special modes of nutrition; Nitrogen metabolismNitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation (Symbiotic and non symbiotic eg. Rhizobium, Frankia, Azospirillum) Photosynthesis in higher plants - Introduction, Historical,; Significance, site of photosynthesis; Pigments involved in photosynthesis; Chlorophyll structure; Photosynthetic units; Photochemical and biosynthetic phases; Photoluminescence; Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation, Chemiosmotic hypothesis; C3, C4 and CAM cycle; Bacterial photosynthesis; Photorespiration, CO2 compensation point; Respiration – Introduction; Mechanism of Respiration, , anaerobic (fermentation); Factors affecting respiration; Aerobic, Glycolysis, Pyruvate oxidation,TCAcycle(amphibolic pathway); Electron transport chain , oxidative phosphorylation, energy relations – ATP molecules generated; Respiratory quotient (RQ); Growth and Development - Introduction-Charactereristic- Phases of plant growth – growth types- kinetics of growth and growth rateGrowth curve types- Conditions of growthmeasurement of growth; Conditions of growth,Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Differentiation, dedifferentiation,and redifferentiation; Plant growth regulators – classification; Auxin, Avena curvature test, Went’s experiment. Types of auxins, Precursors, structure, Bioassay, and physiological effects; Synergistic effects, antagonistic effects; Gibberellin – discovery, the chemical structure of GA3, Precursors, Bioassay and Physiological effects; Cytokinin – discovery, Precursors, structure, Bioassay and physiological effects; Ethylene – discovery, Precursors, structure, Bioassay and physiological effects; ABA – discovery, Precursors, structure, Bioassay and physiological effects; Photoperiodism- Vernalization |