## School -> State

**Class 12 Course Content**

##### Course Details

Tamilnadu class 12 Maths subject is an important subject which needs a clear understanding of the concepts. Students must read the chapters thoroughly and solve the exercise wise questions to get a clear idea about the subject. The chapters given are extremely crucial as the concepts are required in several competitive exams and higher level topics later.

LITAA Academy has designed the courses based on the need of the hour.

This is a fully online, one-year course for Class 12 students. The course brings live classes by the expert faculties. The course provides you with a comprehensive syllabus and study-material, prepared by the subject experts. The study material will be provided to you digitally. You can also access the live doubt classes along with one-to-one doubt solutions. There will also be tests as prescribed by state board.

##### Syllabus

Chapters | Topics |
---|---|

Matrices and determinants -II | Inverse of a Matrix - cofactor of a matrix, adjoint of a matrix, inverse of a matrix, uniqueness of inverse; Elementary Transformations - rank of a matrix, echelon form, inverse of a matrix using elementary transformations; System of linear equations - linear equations in matrix form, solving equations using Matrix Inverse method, consistency of the system of equations by Determinant method and Rank method |

Complex Numbers | Introduction to Complex Numbers - the need for complex numbers; complex numbers as ordered pairs of real numbers; basic arithmetic operations on complex numbers; Algebra of complex numbers - conjugate of a complex number, modulus of a complex number, triangle inequality, problems; Polar form - argand plane as an extension of the real number line, a geometrical representation of complex numbers, conjugate, modulus, addition and subtraction, polar form of a complex number and principal value of the argument; Demoivre’s theorem - statement of Demoivre’s theorem, Euler’s formula, notation and polar form of unit circle, square roots, cube roots and fourth roots of unity, problems involving the cube roots of unity |

Theory of Equations | Quadratic Equations - relation between roots and coefficients, conditions for rational, irrational, and complex roots, solving equations reducible to a quadratic equation, the graph of a quadratic function, minimum and maximum values, quadratic inequalities, and a sign of quadratic expression; Polynomial equations - fundamental theorem of algebra, formation of the equation for the given roots, equations with rational coefficients when some of the irrational or complex roots are given, roots of third or higher degree polynomial equations when given in partly factorized form; Graphical approach to equations - using continuity of polynomial functions to find real roots by finding where the function changes sign, counting the number of positive, negative and complex roots using Descartes’ rule of signs (no proof |

Trigonometric functions and Inverse Trigonometric functions | Periodic functions - definition and examples, domain and Range of a function; Odd and Even functions - definitions and examples; Graphs of Trigonometric functions - graphs of sine, cosine, tangent, secant, cosecant, cotangent functions; Properties and graphs of inverse Trigonometric functions - domain and Range of Inverse Trigonometric functions, properties of Inverse Trigonometric functions, Simple problems, graphs of Inverse of sine, cosine, tangent, secant, cosecant, cotangent functions |

Two Dimensional Analytic Geometry - II | Conic sections - definition of a conic, general equation of a conic, sections of a cone; Circle - general form, standard forms, parametric form, verifying the position of a given point; Parabola - standard equation: four types, properties, parametric form, simple problems, and applications; Ellipse and Hyperbola - standard equation, parametric form, properties, simple problems and applications |

Vectors - II | Scalar Triple Product - definition of the scalar triple product, geometric meaning and determinant form, properties, problems, and applications; Vector Triple Product - definition of vector triple product, geometric meaning, properties, problems, and applications; Straight lines - vector and cartesian equations of a straight line: two points form, one point and parallel to a vector form, direction ratios, and cosines, angle between two lines, coplanar lines (intersecting, perpendicular, parallel), non-coplanar lines, the distance between two parallel lines, two non–coplanar lines, a point, and a line; Planes - vector and cartesian equations of a plane (Normal form, given one point and two parallel vectors, given two points and one parallel vector, given three points, passing through the intersection of two planes), angle between two planes, the angle between a line and a plane, meeting point of a line and a plane, the distance between a point and a plane, the distance between two parallel planes |

Applications of Derivatives | Derivatives as Slope and Rate of Change - meaning of derivative as slope, equations of tangent and normal, the meaning of derivative as a rate of change and related rates; Mean Value Theorem - Rolle’s theorem, Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem, geometrical meaning, applications; Indeterminate forms - a limit process - l’ Hôpital Rul, evaluating the limits; Sketching of elementary curves - increasing/decreasing – first derivative test, concavity/convexity – second derivative test, Asymptotes, and symmetry, sketching of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic curves; Extrema of functions - Extrema: Maxima and Minima using first and second derivative test, applications to optimization |

Differentials and Partial Derivatives | Differentials - definition and simple problems; Errors and Approximations - types of errors – finding approximate values, concepts of differentials; Partial Differentiation - First-order and second-order partial derivatives, Function of function rule (two and three variables), simple problems |

Applications of integration | Evaluation of definite integrals - geometric meaning of definite integrals, definite integrals (Riemann integral) as a limit of sums, fundamental theorem of integral calculus, evaluation of definite integrals by evaluating the anti-derivative, reduction formulae, Bernoulli’s formula, Gamma integral, properties of definite integrals; Areas and Volumes - area bounded by a curve and coordinate axes (simple problems), area bounded by two curves, the volume of a solid obtained by revolving area about an axis (simple problems) |

Differential equations | Introduction to differential equations - definition of ordinary differential equations, order and degree of the ODE, general and particular solutions; Formation of differential equations - formation of differential equations by eliminating arbitrary constants (at most two constants), Modeling problems of Population growth, Bacterial growth, Newton’s law of cooling, Radioactive decay; Solutions of linear differential equations (First order) - solutions of first-order and first-degree differential equations: variable separable method, homogenous differential equation, linear differential equations, applications to modeling: Solving the differential equations that were formed for population growth, bacterial colony growth, Newton’s laws of cooling and radioactive decay |

Theory of Probability | Introduction to Probability - classical definition, random experiment, sample space and events, sure-impossible-mutually exclusive–exhaustive events; Laws on probability - addition and multiplication theorems, independent and dependent events, conditional and total probability, Bayes’ theorem, simple problems; Probability distributions - introduction to random variables, probability mass function, probability density function, probability distribution functions, probability, general distribution, mathematical expectation, Mean and Variance, binomial distribution |

##### Course Details

Samacheer Kalvi Class 12th acts as a foundation to students on various concepts, topics for subjects that the students will be appearing for in class 12th final exams. Therefore, it is important to focus on building the basics by thoroughly going through the Physics textbooks prescribed by the Tamil Nadu education board.

LITAA Academy has designed the courses based on the need of the hour.

This is a fully online, one-year course for Class 12 students. The course brings live classes by the expert faculties. The course provides you with a comprehensive syllabus and study-material, prepared by the subject experts. The study material will be provided to you digitally. You can also access the live doubt classes along with one-to-one doubt solutions. There will also be tests as prescribed by state board.

##### Syllabus

Chapters | Topics |
---|---|

Electrostatics | Introduction of charges; Coulomb’s law; Electric field; Electric dipole; Electrostatic potential; Electrostatic potential energy; Electric flux; Gauss law and its applications; Electrostatic properties of conductors and insulators; Free and bound charges inside the conductor; Dielectrics; Electric polarization; Capacitance and capacitors Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics; Capacitors in parallel and series; Distribution of charges on a conductor and action of points; Lightning arresters; Van de Graff generator |

Current electricity and Heating Effects of Electric Current | Electric current; Ohm’s law; Resistance in series and parallel, Color code for carbon resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance; Potential difference and EMF of a cell; Cells in series and in parallel; Kirchoff’s laws; Wheatstone bridge; Meter bridge; Potentiometer; Electric energy; electric power; Heating effect of electric current, Joule’s law, Thermoelectric effect, Seebeck effect; Peltier effect; Thomson effect |

Magnetism and Magnetic Effects of Electric Current | Magnetic effects of current; Biot-Savart law; Ampere circuital law; Lorentz force; Force on a moving charge in a magnetic field; Cyclotron; Force on a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field; Torque on a current loop; Moving coil galvanometer; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements; Coulomb inverse square law of magnetism; Magnetic dipole; Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line and equatorial line of the bar magnet; Torque acting on a bar magnet in a uniform magnetic field; Tangent law and Tangent galvanometer; Magnetic properties; Classification of magnetic materials; Hysteresis |

Electromagnetic induction and Alternating current | Magnetic flux; Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law; Lenz’s law; Flemming’s right-hand rule; Eddy current; Self-induction; Methods of producing induced emf; AC generator; Transformer; Alternating current; AC voltage applied to a resistor; inductor; capacitor; LCR circuit; Q factor; Power in an AC circuit; Power factor; Oscillation in an LC circuit |

Electromagnetic waves | Displacement current; Electromagnetic waves; Electromagnetic spectrum (Radio waves-MicrowavesInfrared Waves- Visible light-Ultraviolet rays-X rays gamma rays); Types of the spectrum; Fraunhofer lines |

Optics | Ray Optics - Reflection; laws of reflection; Spherical mirrors; Mirror formula; Refraction; laws of refraction; Lens makers formula; Magnification power; Total internal reflection; Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism Wave optics - Huygen’s Principle; Reflection; Refraction of plane waves at a plane surface using wavefront; Young’s double-slit experiment; Diffraction: Diffraction due to single slit; Polarization: Plane polarized light; Brewster’s law; Nicol prism; Malus law; Polaroids; Scattering - Rayleigh, Raman scattering; Maser and Laser; Optical instruments, Microscope, Astronomical telescope |

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter | Dual nature of radiation and matter; Photoelectric effect; Laws of photoelectric emission; Einstein’s photoelectric equation; Photocell and application; Matter waves; Wave nature of Matter; De Broglie equation; Electron microscope; Davisson and Germer experiment; X rays |

Atoms and Nuclei | Atoms – Early atom models; Alpha particle scattering experiments; Rutherford model; Bohr’s atom model; Atomic spectra Nuclei - Composition of Nuclei, Size and density of nucleus; Isotopes, isobars, and isotones; Mass defect, binding energy; Nuclear forces; Radioactivity; α, β and γ decay; Laws of radioactive decay; Nuclear Fission, fusion |

Semiconductor Devices | Classification of metals, insulators, and semiconductors; Types of semiconductors; Diodes; Breakdown mechanism, Zener diode; Light Emitting Diode; Photodiode; Solar cell; Transistors; Transistor configuration; Transistor action; Common emitter; Transistor characteristics; Transistor as an amplifier; Transistor as an oscillator; Digital electronics; Digital and analog signals Integrated chips; Logic gates; Boolean algebra |

Communication systems | Elements of the communication system; Bandwidth; Modulation; Antenna; Propagation of electromagnetic waves; Satellite communication; Optical fiber communication; Radar; Internet; Mobile phone; Global Positioning System |

Recent Developments in Physics | Physics as a basic building block for science, engineering, and technology; Nanotechnology; Robotics; Physics in biology |

##### Course Details

Samacheer Kalvi Class 12th acts as a foundation to students on various concepts, topics for subjects that the students will be appearing for in class 12th final exams.

Tamil Nadu Board Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus is an all-comprehensive document inclusive of all what is covered in the area of Chemistry during the academic year.
Students aiming to score well in the Class 12 Chemistry exams are advised to refer to the TN Board Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus as it will help them to prepare more efficiently not just for the exams but also to study well in Class. Knowing the Tamil Nadu 12th Class Syllabus usually helps the students to get an idea about the topics and concepts taught in class, the marks’ weightage of a topic and so on.

LITAA Academy has designed the courses based on the need of the hour.

This is a fully online, one-year course for Class 12 students. The course brings live classes by the expert faculties. The course provides you with a comprehensive syllabus and study-material, prepared by the subject experts. The study material will be provided to you digitally. You can also access the live doubt classes along with one-to-one doubt solutions. There will also be tests as prescribed by state board.

##### Syllabus

Chapters | Topics |
---|---|

Metallurgy | Occurrence of metals; Concentration of ores; Extraction of crude metal; Thermodynamic principle of metallurgy; Electrochemical principle of metallurgy and applications: Electrolytic extraction of Aluminium, electrochemical series; extraction based on oxidation and reduction; application of metals (Al, Zn, Fe, Cu, Au) |

p-Block elements – I | Occurrence, electronic configurations, oxidation states, general trends in physical and chemical properties of the elements in the period and group; Anomalous properties of the first element of each group; Boron and Aluminium: occurrence, preparation, physical and chemical properties and uses; structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron trifluoride; Reactions with acids and alkalies; Structure, properties and uses of aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon and Silicon: Anomalous behaviour of carbon; Tendency for catenation; Structure, properties and uses of allotropes of carbon; Structure, properties and uses of oxides of carbon; Structure, properties and uses of silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicate and zeolites; Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Occurrence, Properties and uses of Nitrogen; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia and nitric acid; Structure of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Properties and uses of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of phosphine and phosphorus halides(PCI3, PCl5); Structure of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus. |

P block elements – II | Oxygen and Sulphur: preparation, properties, structure and uses of oxygen and ozone, Allotropic forms of sulphur, preparation, properties, structure, and uses of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid. Halogens: Occurrence, preparation, properties, and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid; Trends in the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen halides; Structures of inter-halogen compounds, oxides, and oxoacids of halogens; Noble gases: Occurrence, trends in physical & chemical properties and uses |

Transition and inner transition metals | Position in the periodic table; Electronic configuration; General trend in properties of 3d series elements; Characteristics of transition metals; Oxides and oxo anions of transition metals; Potassium dichromate& potassium permanganate: structure, shape, oxidizing nature in acidic, basic, and neutral medium, use in redox titration, the structure of chromate, dichromate, manganite and permanganate ion; f-block elements: position of f-block elements in the periodic table, electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, oxidation states: Lanthanide contraction and its consequences; Actinides: oxidation states and comparison with lanthanides |

Coordination Compounds | Definition of coordination compounds: coordination entity, Central metal atom/ion, Ligands, Coordination number, Coordination sphere, Coordination polyhedron, the Oxidation number of the central atom, Homoleptic and heteroleptic complexes; Differences with double salt; IUPAC Nomenclature of coordination compounds; Isomerism in co-ordination compounds: structural and stereoisomerism; Theories of co-ordination compounds: Werner’s theory, Valence Bond Theory, Crystal field theory; Stability and applications of co-ordination compounds. |

Solid State | Introduction to solid-state; Amorphous and crystalline solids; classification of crystalline solids; Unit Cell: Types of the unit cell in two dimensions and three dimensions; Calculation of no of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell; Packing and packing efficiency in solids; Packing fraction in sc, fcc and bcc; Voids: types, location, and formation; Calculations involving unit cell dimensions; Imperfection in solids – types of point defects; Electrical and magnetic properties |

Chemical Kinetics | Introduction of Kinetics; Rate of a reaction; order of a reaction; molecularity of a reaction; factors affecting reaction rate; Integrated rate equations (zero and first-order reactions only); half-life of reactions; pseudo-first-order reaction; concept of collision theory; Temperature dependence of reaction rate – activation energy and Arrhenius equation. |

Ionic Equilibrium | Acids, bases, and salts; Various concepts of acids and base; Arrhenius, Brӧnsted-Lowry and Lewis theory of acids and bases; Ionisation of water; The PH scale; Ionisation of week acids- Oswalt dilution law; Common ion effect; Buffer solution; Henderson- Hasselbalch equation; Salt hydrolysis; Solubility and Solubility product; |

Electrochemistry | Introduction; Conductivity of electrolytic solutions; Resistivity, conductivity, equivalent conductivity, molar conductivity; measurement of the conductivity of ionic solutions; Variation of conductivity with concentration; Debye HuckelOnsagar equation; Kohlrausch’s law; Electrochemical Cells; IUPAC conventions for electrochemical cells Galvanic Cell; Measurement of Electrode Potential; Nernst Equation; Equilibrium constant from Nernst Equation; Electro-chemical cell and Gibbs Energy of Reaction; Electrolytic cells and electrolysis; Faraday’s law of electrolysis; Product of electrolysis; Batteries; Primary Batteries; Secondary Batteries; Fuel cells; Corrosion; Control of corrosion; |

Surface Chemistry | Introduction; absorption and adsorption; Types of adsorption; Applications of Adsorption; Adsorption isotherms; Catalysis; Characteristics of catalyst; Types of catalyst, theories of catalysis; Enzyme catalysis; Colloids. Classification, Preparation, and Purification of colloids; Properties of colloidal solution; Emulsions; Application of colloids and emulsions in day to day life; |

Alcohols, phenols, and ethers | Alcohols; Introduction; classification; nomenclature; Monohydric alcohol methods of preparation; Physical and chemical properties, mechanism of dehydration; (Saytzeff’s rule), oxidation, the acidity of alcohols; Methods of differentiation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; Inter conversions of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; Commercially important alcohols; Manufacture of methanol, ethanol, and its uses; Dihydric alcohols and Trihydric alcohols; Ethylene glycol – preparation; Physical and chemical properties and uses; Phenols- classification, nomenclature occurrence; Methods of preparation Physical and chemical properties; Distinction test between alcohols and phenols; Uses of phenols; Etherclassification, nomenclature; methods of preparation; physical and chemical properties and uses; Crown ethers |

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids | Carbonyl compounds; Introduction; structure of carbonyl group; nomenclature; aliphatic aldehydes and ketones; Methods of preparation; physical and chemical properties; order of reactivity of aldehydes and ketones; Nucleophilic addition reaction and mechanism; uses of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones; Aromatic aldehydes; Methods of preparation and; Chemical reactions; carboxylic acids; Introduction; Structure of carboxyl group; nomenclature; Aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids; Methods of preparation; Physical and Chemical properties; Acidity of carboxylic acids – effect of substituents (Concept of Kaand pKa); Test for carboxylic acids; uses of carboxylic acids; Acid derivatives; Acid chlorides, esters, acid anhydrides and acid amides: Nomenclature, order of reactivity of acid derivatives; Preparation, properties, and uses; |

Hydrocarbonsy | Nitro compounds: Nomenclature, isomerism, preparation, chemical reactions and uses; Amines: classification, nomenclature, structure; methods of preparations, physical properties, chemical properties, the basic character of amines (Kb and pKb); the distinction between primary, secondary, and tertiary amines; Diazonium salts: structure, preparation, physical and chemical properties; Cyanides and Isocyanides: nomenclature, preparation, properties and uses |

Biomolecules | Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides; preparation and cyclic structures; disaccharides cyclic structure; polysaccharides; sources and cyclic structures; Importance of carbohydrates; Proteins: amino acids, classification, Zwitter ions, isoelectric point, peptide bond, classification proteins; structure of proteins: denaturation of proteins; Enzymes: mechanism of enzyme action; Lipids: classification and biological functions; Vitamins: definition, classification, sources and deficiency diseases; Nucleic acids: definition: DNA & RNA, Nucleoside and nucleotides, ATP and its importance |

Chemistry in everyday life | Introduction; Medicinal chemistry: classification of drugs, drug-target interactions; different classes of drugs; Food chemistry: food additives, artificial sweeteners, food preservatives, antioxidants; Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents – types, cleansing action, Polymer chemistry: classification based on source, structure, molecular forces; Types of polymerization, addition polymerization, and mechanism; Preparation of addition polymers (polyethylene, Teflon, polyacrylonitrile); Condensation polymers: preparation of polyamides (Nylon-6 & Nylon 6,6), polyesters (terylene), Bakelite, melamine, formaldehyde polymer; Copolymerisation: Rubber: natural rubber, vulcanization of rubber; Biodegradable polymers: PHBV, Nylon-2, Nylon-6; Commercially important polymers |

##### Course Details

Samacheer Kalvi Class 12th acts as a foundation to students on various concepts, topics for subjects that the students will be appearing for in class 12th final exams.

Tamil Nadu Board Class 12 Biology Syllabus is an all-comprehensive document inclusive of all what is covered in the area of Chemistry during the academic year.

Students aiming to score well in the Class 12 Biology exams are advised to refer to the TN Board Class 12 Biology Syllabus as it will help them to prepare more efficiently not just for the exams but also to study well in Class. Knowing the Tamil Nadu 12th Class Biology Syllabus usually helps the students to get an idea about the topics and concepts taught in class, the marks’ weightage of a topic and so on.

LITAA Academy has designed the courses based on the need of the hour.

This is a fully online, one-year course for Class 12 students. The course brings live classes by the expert faculties. The course provides you with a comprehensive syllabus and study-material, prepared by the subject experts. The study material will be provided to you digitally. You can also access the live doubt classes along with one-to-one doubt solutions. There will also be tests as prescribed by state board.